In this course, we will be using the style common to anthropologists and others in the social and natural sciences (in-text or author-date citations). The bibliography is an important part of academic writing because it places the writer in the context of the larger academic and literary world. As we talked about the importance of contextualizing the anthropologist in ethnography, citing sources properly demonstrates the context and validity of your own work – it never hurts, and almost always helps, to have many in-text cites of other work. Following proper guidelines for citations is essential in research papers you write as a Davidson student or in analytical writing in whatever career you choose. This is an abbreviated version of the Chicago Manual of Style author-date quick guide; see it for more detailed information.
An in-text citation is merely a shorthand to point to the reader the source of the quote or idea; in this case (Watson 1976, 365), the idea is from page 365 of the 1976 work by Watson. The full reference is listed at the end of your paper. Quotes always need citation, and with specific ideas or facts, it does not hurt to add a citation.
Author-Date: Sample Citations
The following examples illustrate citations using the author-date system. Each example of a reference list entry is accompanied by an example of a corresponding parenthetical citation in the text. For more details and many more examples, see chapter 15 of The Chicago Manual of Style. For examples of the same citations using the notes and bibliography system, click on the Notes and Bibliography tab above.
Two or more authors
For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the reference list; in the text, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”):
Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author
Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author
Chapter or other part of a book
Chapter of an edited volume originally published elsewhere (as in primary sources)
Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book
Book published electronically
If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, list a URL; include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.
Article in a print journal
In the text, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the reference list entry, list the page range for the whole article.
Article in an online journal
Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if the journal lists one. A DOI is a permanent ID that, when appended to http://dx.doi.org/ in the address bar of an Internet browser, will lead to the source. If no DOI is available, list a URL. Include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline.
Article in a newspaper or popular magazine
Newspaper and magazine articles may be cited in running text (“As Sheryl Stolberg and Robert Pear noted in a New York Times article on February 27, 2010, . . .”), and they are commonly omitted from a reference list. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. If you consulted the article online, include a URL; include an access date only if your publisher or discipline requires one. If no author is identified, begin the citation with the article title.
Thesis or dissertation
Paper presented at a meeting or conference
A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text (“As of July 19, 2008, the McDonald’s Corporation listed on its website . . .”). If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date or, if available, a date that the site was last modified. In the absence of a date of publication, use the access date or last-modified date as the basis of the citation.
Blog entry or comment
Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text (“In a comment posted to The Becker-Posner Blog on February 23, 2010, . . .”), and they are commonly omitted from a reference list. If a reference list entry is needed, cite the blog post there but mention comments in the text only. (If an access date is required, add it before the URL; see examples elsewhere in this guide.)
E-mail or text message
E-mail and text messages may be cited in running text (“In a text message to the author on March 1, 2010, John Doe revealed . . .”), and they are rarely listed in a reference list. In parenthetical citations, the term personal communication (or pers. comm.) can be used.
Item in a commercial database
For items retrieved from a commercial database, add the name of the database and an accession number following the facts of publication. In this example, the dissertation cited above is shown as it would be cited if it were retrieved from ProQuest’s database for dissertations and theses.